Leksykon Porcelany Europejskiej: A Comprehensive Guide to European Porcelain
Leksykon Porcelany Europejskiej is a book by Ludwik Danckert that provides a comprehensive guide to European porcelain from the 16th to the 20th century. The book covers the history, production, styles, marks, and characteristics of porcelain from various countries and regions, such as Germany, France, England, Italy, Scandinavia, Russia, and more. The book also includes illustrations, photographs, maps, tables, and indexes to help the reader identify and appreciate the beauty and diversity of European porcelain.
The book was first published in Polish in 1979 by Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe. It was later translated into German and English. The English edition was published in 1992 by Schiffer Publishing Ltd. The book has 560 pages and is divided into 12 chapters. Each chapter focuses on a specific country or region and its porcelain production. The book also has an introduction that gives an overview of the history and development of porcelain in Europe.
Leksykon Porcelany Europejskiej is a valuable resource for anyone interested in European porcelain, whether as a collector, a dealer, a researcher, or a lover of art and culture. The book provides detailed and reliable information on the origins, evolution, and characteristics of European porcelain. It also showcases the artistic achievements and innovations of various porcelain makers and factories across Europe. The book is a testament to the richness and diversity of European porcelain and its contribution to world culture.Some of the most famous European porcelain pieces are:
The Meissen Swan Service, a set of over 2,000 pieces of tableware made for Count Heinrich von BrÃhl in the 1730s. The service features elaborate swan motifs and other naturalistic decorations. It is considered one of the masterpieces of Baroque porcelain art[^1^].
The Chelsea Gold Anchor Service, a set of 154 pieces of tableware made for Catherine the Great of Russia in the 1760s. The service is decorated with scenes of British landscapes and monuments, as well as the gold anchor mark of the Chelsea factory. It is one of the finest examples of English porcelain painting[^2^].
The SÃvres Cameo Service, a set of 60 pieces of tableware made for Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century. The service is adorned with cameos depicting classical figures and scenes, as well as imperial symbols and emblems. It is one of the most elaborate and expensive services ever produced by the SÃvres factory[^3^].
Making porcelain is not an easy task. It requires high-quality raw materials, precise control of firing temperatures, and skilled craftsmanship. Some of the challenges of making porcelain are:
Finding suitable sources of kaolin and petuntse, the two main ingredients of true porcelain. These minerals are not widely available and have to be mined, transported, and purified before use.
Achieving a high degree of vitrification, or glassiness, in the porcelain body. This requires firing the porcelain at very high temperatures (about 1,450 ÂC or 2,650 ÂF) for a long time. The high temperature also poses a risk of deformation, cracking, or melting of the porcelain pieces.
Applying glazes and decorations that are compatible with the porcelain body. The glazes and colours have to withstand the high firing temperature and adhere well to the porcelain surface. They also have to match the shrinkage and expansion rates of the porcelain body to avoid crazing or peeling off.
Creating complex shapes and forms that are both functional and aesthetic. Porcelain is a delicate and brittle material that can break easily during handling or firing. It also has a tendency to warp or sag under its own weight. Therefore, porcelain makers have to use various techniques, such as moulding, throwing, slip casting, or press forming, to shape the porcelain pieces. 061ffe29dd